Contract 0x4200000000000000000000000000000000000015 13

Contract Overview

Balance:
0 ETH
My Name Tag:
Not Available

ContractCreator:
GENESIS at txn GENESIS_4200000000000000000000000000000000000015
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0xbe7d284cabf48a9092e148dadd07fc2e305418c91c62cbba650dcc455d76afce0x440a5e20105323262024-05-27 18:02:201 sec ago0xdeaddeaddeaddeaddeaddeaddeaddeaddead0001 IN 0x42000000000000000000000000000000000000150 ETH00
0x460e6fc775569177ca00ee05d823721cf52d0e8e8992c249ab824e12025f9d110x440a5e20105323252024-05-27 18:02:183 secs ago0xdeaddeaddeaddeaddeaddeaddeaddeaddead0001 IN 0x42000000000000000000000000000000000000150 ETH00
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0xf939ae8b8b0a997cb24a24e6cd9e35079b8aee999089d3c0fd452513dcfbfcdb0x440a5e20105323232024-05-27 18:02:147 secs ago0xdeaddeaddeaddeaddeaddeaddeaddeaddead0001 IN 0x42000000000000000000000000000000000000150 ETH00
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0x18a3ce0d676f2bc303594ec298d44953753f7e126349c98cf0342e63a8882f0e0x440a5e20105323192024-05-27 18:02:0615 secs ago0xdeaddeaddeaddeaddeaddeaddeaddeaddead0001 IN 0x42000000000000000000000000000000000000150 ETH00
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0xb9aa8e7bc9ad1e4a81794b2f34a52662a1d25603d9789bfecf1c5220c9056c5f0x440a5e20105323072024-05-27 18:01:4239 secs ago0xdeaddeaddeaddeaddeaddeaddeaddeaddead0001 IN 0x42000000000000000000000000000000000000150 ETH00
0xb70ba3d3304d06a273ad16aeab31eda86d486f802b3536405e2f8869d41a463e0x440a5e20105323062024-05-27 18:01:4041 secs ago0xdeaddeaddeaddeaddeaddeaddeaddeaddead0001 IN 0x42000000000000000000000000000000000000150 ETH00
0x2f80ddcbb3860b160e80eaee126d30bb8a7d0b32b1c307d718f56a3ec0bed62e0x440a5e20105323052024-05-27 18:01:3843 secs ago0xdeaddeaddeaddeaddeaddeaddeaddeaddead0001 IN 0x42000000000000000000000000000000000000150 ETH00
0x8b993a62bb4d73a358361c374324c77dcdd127ad984a3c8981108c25ac21890f0x440a5e20105323042024-05-27 18:01:3645 secs ago0xdeaddeaddeaddeaddeaddeaddeaddeaddead0001 IN 0x42000000000000000000000000000000000000150 ETH00
0xc84fb1b45760816a8db491a44b5fb0c955c62596e4d3e3efaed5ee11579cbaaa0x440a5e20105323032024-05-27 18:01:3447 secs ago0xdeaddeaddeaddeaddeaddeaddeaddeaddead0001 IN 0x42000000000000000000000000000000000000150 ETH00
0x8be1864e58df53288bef8bcd19652f76af543556bf1a4d19093c4043a1b116be0x440a5e20105323022024-05-27 18:01:3249 secs ago0xdeaddeaddeaddeaddeaddeaddeaddeaddead0001 IN 0x42000000000000000000000000000000000000150 ETH00
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Contract Source Code Verified (Genesis Bytecode Match Only)

Contract Name:
Proxy

Compiler Version
v0.8.15+commit.e14f2714

Optimization Enabled:
Yes with 999999 runs

Other Settings:
default EvmVersion
File 1 of 9 : Proxy.sol
// SPDX-License-Identifier: MIT
pragma solidity 0.8.15;

import { Constants } from "../libraries/Constants.sol";

/// @title Proxy
/// @notice Proxy is a transparent proxy that passes through the call if the caller is the owner or
///         if the caller is address(0), meaning that the call originated from an off-chain
///         simulation.
contract Proxy {
    /// @notice An event that is emitted each time the implementation is changed. This event is part
    ///         of the EIP-1967 specification.
    /// @param implementation The address of the implementation contract
    event Upgraded(address indexed implementation);

    /// @notice An event that is emitted each time the owner is upgraded. This event is part of the
    ///         EIP-1967 specification.
    /// @param previousAdmin The previous owner of the contract
    /// @param newAdmin      The new owner of the contract
    event AdminChanged(address previousAdmin, address newAdmin);

    /// @notice A modifier that reverts if not called by the owner or by address(0) to allow
    ///         eth_call to interact with this proxy without needing to use low-level storage
    ///         inspection. We assume that nobody is able to trigger calls from address(0) during
    ///         normal EVM execution.
    modifier proxyCallIfNotAdmin() {
        if (msg.sender == _getAdmin() || msg.sender == address(0)) {
            _;
        } else {
            // This WILL halt the call frame on completion.
            _doProxyCall();
        }
    }

    /// @notice Sets the initial admin during contract deployment. Admin address is stored at the
    ///         EIP-1967 admin storage slot so that accidental storage collision with the
    ///         implementation is not possible.
    /// @param _admin Address of the initial contract admin. Admin as the ability to access the
    ///               transparent proxy interface.
    constructor(address _admin) {
        _changeAdmin(_admin);
    }

    // slither-disable-next-line locked-ether
    receive() external payable {
        // Proxy call by default.
        _doProxyCall();
    }

    // slither-disable-next-line locked-ether
    fallback() external payable {
        // Proxy call by default.
        _doProxyCall();
    }

    /// @notice Set the implementation contract address. The code at the given address will execute
    ///         when this contract is called.
    /// @param _implementation Address of the implementation contract.
    function upgradeTo(address _implementation) public virtual proxyCallIfNotAdmin {
        _setImplementation(_implementation);
    }

    /// @notice Set the implementation and call a function in a single transaction. Useful to ensure
    ///         atomic execution of initialization-based upgrades.
    /// @param _implementation Address of the implementation contract.
    /// @param _data           Calldata to delegatecall the new implementation with.
    function upgradeToAndCall(
        address _implementation,
        bytes calldata _data
    )
        public
        payable
        virtual
        proxyCallIfNotAdmin
        returns (bytes memory)
    {
        _setImplementation(_implementation);
        (bool success, bytes memory returndata) = _implementation.delegatecall(_data);
        require(success, "Proxy: delegatecall to new implementation contract failed");
        return returndata;
    }

    /// @notice Changes the owner of the proxy contract. Only callable by the owner.
    /// @param _admin New owner of the proxy contract.
    function changeAdmin(address _admin) public virtual proxyCallIfNotAdmin {
        _changeAdmin(_admin);
    }

    /// @notice Gets the owner of the proxy contract.
    /// @return Owner address.
    function admin() public virtual proxyCallIfNotAdmin returns (address) {
        return _getAdmin();
    }

    //// @notice Queries the implementation address.
    /// @return Implementation address.
    function implementation() public virtual proxyCallIfNotAdmin returns (address) {
        return _getImplementation();
    }

    /// @notice Sets the implementation address.
    /// @param _implementation New implementation address.
    function _setImplementation(address _implementation) internal {
        bytes32 proxyImplementation = Constants.PROXY_IMPLEMENTATION_ADDRESS;
        assembly {
            sstore(proxyImplementation, _implementation)
        }
        emit Upgraded(_implementation);
    }

    /// @notice Changes the owner of the proxy contract.
    /// @param _admin New owner of the proxy contract.
    function _changeAdmin(address _admin) internal {
        address previous = _getAdmin();
        bytes32 proxyOwner = Constants.PROXY_OWNER_ADDRESS;
        assembly {
            sstore(proxyOwner, _admin)
        }
        emit AdminChanged(previous, _admin);
    }

    /// @notice Performs the proxy call via a delegatecall.
    function _doProxyCall() internal {
        address impl = _getImplementation();
        require(impl != address(0), "Proxy: implementation not initialized");

        assembly {
            // Copy calldata into memory at 0x0....calldatasize.
            calldatacopy(0x0, 0x0, calldatasize())

            // Perform the delegatecall, make sure to pass all available gas.
            let success := delegatecall(gas(), impl, 0x0, calldatasize(), 0x0, 0x0)

            // Copy returndata into memory at 0x0....returndatasize. Note that this *will*
            // overwrite the calldata that we just copied into memory but that doesn't really
            // matter because we'll be returning in a second anyway.
            returndatacopy(0x0, 0x0, returndatasize())

            // Success == 0 means a revert. We'll revert too and pass the data up.
            if iszero(success) { revert(0x0, returndatasize()) }

            // Otherwise we'll just return and pass the data up.
            return(0x0, returndatasize())
        }
    }

    /// @notice Queries the implementation address.
    /// @return Implementation address.
    function _getImplementation() internal view returns (address) {
        address impl;
        bytes32 proxyImplementation = Constants.PROXY_IMPLEMENTATION_ADDRESS;
        assembly {
            impl := sload(proxyImplementation)
        }
        return impl;
    }

    /// @notice Queries the owner of the proxy contract.
    /// @return Owner address.
    function _getAdmin() internal view returns (address) {
        address owner;
        bytes32 proxyOwner = Constants.PROXY_OWNER_ADDRESS;
        assembly {
            owner := sload(proxyOwner)
        }
        return owner;
    }
}

File 2 of 9 : Constants.sol
// SPDX-License-Identifier: MIT
pragma solidity ^0.8.0;

import { ResourceMetering } from "../L1/ResourceMetering.sol";

/// @title Constants
/// @notice Constants is a library for storing constants. Simple! Don't put everything in here, just
///         the stuff used in multiple contracts. Constants that only apply to a single contract
///         should be defined in that contract instead.
library Constants {
    /// @notice Special address to be used as the tx origin for gas estimation calls in the
    ///         OptimismPortal and CrossDomainMessenger calls. You only need to use this address if
    ///         the minimum gas limit specified by the user is not actually enough to execute the
    ///         given message and you're attempting to estimate the actual necessary gas limit. We
    ///         use address(1) because it's the ecrecover precompile and therefore guaranteed to
    ///         never have any code on any EVM chain.
    address internal constant ESTIMATION_ADDRESS = address(1);

    /// @notice Value used for the L2 sender storage slot in both the OptimismPortal and the
    ///         CrossDomainMessenger contracts before an actual sender is set. This value is
    ///         non-zero to reduce the gas cost of message passing transactions.
    address internal constant DEFAULT_L2_SENDER = 0x000000000000000000000000000000000000dEaD;

    /// @notice The storage slot that holds the address of a proxy implementation.
    /// @dev `bytes32(uint256(keccak256('eip1967.proxy.implementation')) - 1)`
    bytes32 internal constant PROXY_IMPLEMENTATION_ADDRESS =
        0x360894a13ba1a3210667c828492db98dca3e2076cc3735a920a3ca505d382bbc;

    /// @notice The storage slot that holds the address of the owner.
    /// @dev `bytes32(uint256(keccak256('eip1967.proxy.admin')) - 1)`
    bytes32 internal constant PROXY_OWNER_ADDRESS = 0xb53127684a568b3173ae13b9f8a6016e243e63b6e8ee1178d6a717850b5d6103;

    /// @notice Returns the default values for the ResourceConfig. These are the recommended values
    ///         for a production network.
    function DEFAULT_RESOURCE_CONFIG() internal pure returns (ResourceMetering.ResourceConfig memory) {
        ResourceMetering.ResourceConfig memory config = ResourceMetering.ResourceConfig({
            maxResourceLimit: 20_000_000,
            elasticityMultiplier: 10,
            baseFeeMaxChangeDenominator: 8,
            minimumBaseFee: 1 gwei,
            systemTxMaxGas: 1_000_000,
            maximumBaseFee: type(uint128).max
        });
        return config;
    }
}

File 3 of 9 : ResourceMetering.sol
// SPDX-License-Identifier: MIT
pragma solidity 0.8.15;

import { Initializable } from "@openzeppelin/contracts/proxy/utils/Initializable.sol";
import { Math } from "@openzeppelin/contracts/utils/math/Math.sol";
import { Burn } from "../libraries/Burn.sol";
import { Arithmetic } from "../libraries/Arithmetic.sol";

/// @custom:upgradeable
/// @title ResourceMetering
/// @notice ResourceMetering implements an EIP-1559 style resource metering system where pricing
///         updates automatically based on current demand.
abstract contract ResourceMetering is Initializable {
    /// @notice Represents the various parameters that control the way in which resources are
    ///         metered. Corresponds to the EIP-1559 resource metering system.
    /// @custom:field prevBaseFee   Base fee from the previous block(s).
    /// @custom:field prevBoughtGas Amount of gas bought so far in the current block.
    /// @custom:field prevBlockNum  Last block number that the base fee was updated.
    struct ResourceParams {
        uint128 prevBaseFee;
        uint64 prevBoughtGas;
        uint64 prevBlockNum;
    }

    /// @notice Represents the configuration for the EIP-1559 based curve for the deposit gas
    ///         market. These values should be set with care as it is possible to set them in
    ///         a way that breaks the deposit gas market. The target resource limit is defined as
    ///         maxResourceLimit / elasticityMultiplier. This struct was designed to fit within a
    ///         single word. There is additional space for additions in the future.
    /// @custom:field maxResourceLimit             Represents the maximum amount of deposit gas that
    ///                                            can be purchased per block.
    /// @custom:field elasticityMultiplier         Determines the target resource limit along with
    ///                                            the resource limit.
    /// @custom:field baseFeeMaxChangeDenominator  Determines max change on fee per block.
    /// @custom:field minimumBaseFee               The min deposit base fee, it is clamped to this
    ///                                            value.
    /// @custom:field systemTxMaxGas               The amount of gas supplied to the system
    ///                                            transaction. This should be set to the same
    ///                                            number that the op-node sets as the gas limit
    ///                                            for the system transaction.
    /// @custom:field maximumBaseFee               The max deposit base fee, it is clamped to this
    ///                                            value.
    struct ResourceConfig {
        uint32 maxResourceLimit;
        uint8 elasticityMultiplier;
        uint8 baseFeeMaxChangeDenominator;
        uint32 minimumBaseFee;
        uint32 systemTxMaxGas;
        uint128 maximumBaseFee;
    }

    /// @notice EIP-1559 style gas parameters.
    ResourceParams public params;

    /// @notice Reserve extra slots (to a total of 50) in the storage layout for future upgrades.
    uint256[48] private __gap;

    /// @notice Meters access to a function based an amount of a requested resource.
    /// @param _amount Amount of the resource requested.
    modifier metered(uint64 _amount) {
        // Record initial gas amount so we can refund for it later.
        uint256 initialGas = gasleft();

        // Run the underlying function.
        _;

        // Run the metering function.
        _metered(_amount, initialGas);
    }

    /// @notice An internal function that holds all of the logic for metering a resource.
    /// @param _amount     Amount of the resource requested.
    /// @param _initialGas The amount of gas before any modifier execution.
    function _metered(uint64 _amount, uint256 _initialGas) internal {
        // Update block number and base fee if necessary.
        uint256 blockDiff = block.number - params.prevBlockNum;

        ResourceConfig memory config = _resourceConfig();
        int256 targetResourceLimit =
            int256(uint256(config.maxResourceLimit)) / int256(uint256(config.elasticityMultiplier));

        if (blockDiff > 0) {
            // Handle updating EIP-1559 style gas parameters. We use EIP-1559 to restrict the rate
            // at which deposits can be created and therefore limit the potential for deposits to
            // spam the L2 system. Fee scheme is very similar to EIP-1559 with minor changes.
            int256 gasUsedDelta = int256(uint256(params.prevBoughtGas)) - targetResourceLimit;
            int256 baseFeeDelta = (int256(uint256(params.prevBaseFee)) * gasUsedDelta)
                / (targetResourceLimit * int256(uint256(config.baseFeeMaxChangeDenominator)));

            // Update base fee by adding the base fee delta and clamp the resulting value between
            // min and max.
            int256 newBaseFee = Arithmetic.clamp({
                _value: int256(uint256(params.prevBaseFee)) + baseFeeDelta,
                _min: int256(uint256(config.minimumBaseFee)),
                _max: int256(uint256(config.maximumBaseFee))
            });

            // If we skipped more than one block, we also need to account for every empty block.
            // Empty block means there was no demand for deposits in that block, so we should
            // reflect this lack of demand in the fee.
            if (blockDiff > 1) {
                // Update the base fee by repeatedly applying the exponent 1-(1/change_denominator)
                // blockDiff - 1 times. Simulates multiple empty blocks. Clamp the resulting value
                // between min and max.
                newBaseFee = Arithmetic.clamp({
                    _value: Arithmetic.cdexp({
                        _coefficient: newBaseFee,
                        _denominator: int256(uint256(config.baseFeeMaxChangeDenominator)),
                        _exponent: int256(blockDiff - 1)
                    }),
                    _min: int256(uint256(config.minimumBaseFee)),
                    _max: int256(uint256(config.maximumBaseFee))
                });
            }

            // Update new base fee, reset bought gas, and update block number.
            params.prevBaseFee = uint128(uint256(newBaseFee));
            params.prevBoughtGas = 0;
            params.prevBlockNum = uint64(block.number);
        }

        // Make sure we can actually buy the resource amount requested by the user.
        params.prevBoughtGas += _amount;
        require(
            int256(uint256(params.prevBoughtGas)) <= int256(uint256(config.maxResourceLimit)),
            "ResourceMetering: cannot buy more gas than available gas limit"
        );

        // Determine the amount of ETH to be paid.
        uint256 resourceCost = uint256(_amount) * uint256(params.prevBaseFee);

        // We currently charge for this ETH amount as an L1 gas burn, so we convert the ETH amount
        // into gas by dividing by the L1 base fee. We assume a minimum base fee of 1 gwei to avoid
        // division by zero for L1s that don't support 1559 or to avoid excessive gas burns during
        // periods of extremely low L1 demand. One-day average gas fee hasn't dipped below 1 gwei
        // during any 1 day period in the last 5 years, so should be fine.
        uint256 gasCost = resourceCost / Math.max(block.basefee, 1 gwei);

        // Give the user a refund based on the amount of gas they used to do all of the work up to
        // this point. Since we're at the end of the modifier, this should be pretty accurate. Acts
        // effectively like a dynamic stipend (with a minimum value).
        uint256 usedGas = _initialGas - gasleft();
        if (gasCost > usedGas) {
            Burn.gas(gasCost - usedGas);
        }
    }

    /// @notice Virtual function that returns the resource config.
    ///         Contracts that inherit this contract must implement this function.
    /// @return ResourceConfig
    function _resourceConfig() internal virtual returns (ResourceConfig memory);

    /// @notice Sets initial resource parameter values.
    ///         This function must either be called by the initializer function of an upgradeable
    ///         child contract.
    // solhint-disable-next-line func-name-mixedcase
    function __ResourceMetering_init() internal onlyInitializing {
        params = ResourceParams({ prevBaseFee: 1 gwei, prevBoughtGas: 0, prevBlockNum: uint64(block.number) });
    }
}

File 4 of 9 : Arithmetic.sol
// SPDX-License-Identifier: MIT
pragma solidity 0.8.15;

import { SignedMath } from "@openzeppelin/contracts/utils/math/SignedMath.sol";
import { FixedPointMathLib } from "@rari-capital/solmate/src/utils/FixedPointMathLib.sol";

/// @title Arithmetic
/// @notice Even more math than before.
library Arithmetic {
    /// @notice Clamps a value between a minimum and maximum.
    /// @param _value The value to clamp.
    /// @param _min   The minimum value.
    /// @param _max   The maximum value.
    /// @return The clamped value.
    function clamp(int256 _value, int256 _min, int256 _max) internal pure returns (int256) {
        return SignedMath.min(SignedMath.max(_value, _min), _max);
    }

    /// @notice (c)oefficient (d)enominator (exp)onentiation function.
    ///         Returns the result of: c * (1 - 1/d)^exp.
    /// @param _coefficient Coefficient of the function.
    /// @param _denominator Fractional denominator.
    /// @param _exponent    Power function exponent.
    /// @return Result of c * (1 - 1/d)^exp.
    function cdexp(int256 _coefficient, int256 _denominator, int256 _exponent) internal pure returns (int256) {
        return (_coefficient * (FixedPointMathLib.powWad(1e18 - (1e18 / _denominator), _exponent * 1e18))) / 1e18;
    }
}

File 5 of 9 : Burn.sol
// SPDX-License-Identifier: MIT
pragma solidity 0.8.15;

/// @title Burn
/// @notice Utilities for burning stuff.
library Burn {
    /// @notice Burns a given amount of ETH.
    /// @param _amount Amount of ETH to burn.
    function eth(uint256 _amount) internal {
        new Burner{ value: _amount }();
    }

    /// @notice Burns a given amount of gas.
    /// @param _amount Amount of gas to burn.
    function gas(uint256 _amount) internal view {
        uint256 i = 0;
        uint256 initialGas = gasleft();
        while (initialGas - gasleft() < _amount) {
            ++i;
        }
    }
}

/// @title Burner
/// @notice Burner self-destructs on creation and sends all ETH to itself, removing all ETH given to
///         the contract from the circulating supply. Self-destructing is the only way to remove ETH
///         from the circulating supply.
contract Burner {
    constructor() payable {
        selfdestruct(payable(address(this)));
    }
}

File 6 of 9 : Math.sol
// SPDX-License-Identifier: MIT
// OpenZeppelin Contracts (last updated v5.0.0) (utils/math/Math.sol)

pragma solidity ^0.8.15;

/**
 * @dev Standard math utilities missing in the Solidity language.
 */
library Math {
    /**
     * @dev Muldiv operation overflow.
     */
    error MathOverflowedMulDiv();

    enum Rounding {
        Floor, // Toward negative infinity
        Ceil, // Toward positive infinity
        Trunc, // Toward zero
        Expand // Away from zero
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns the addition of two unsigned integers, with an overflow flag.
     */
    function tryAdd(uint256 a, uint256 b) internal pure returns (bool, uint256) {
        unchecked {
            uint256 c = a + b;
            if (c < a) return (false, 0);
            return (true, c);
        }
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns the subtraction of two unsigned integers, with an overflow flag.
     */
    function trySub(uint256 a, uint256 b) internal pure returns (bool, uint256) {
        unchecked {
            if (b > a) return (false, 0);
            return (true, a - b);
        }
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns the multiplication of two unsigned integers, with an overflow flag.
     */
    function tryMul(uint256 a, uint256 b) internal pure returns (bool, uint256) {
        unchecked {
            // Gas optimization: this is cheaper than requiring 'a' not being zero, but the
            // benefit is lost if 'b' is also tested.
            // See: https://github.com/OpenZeppelin/openzeppelin-contracts/pull/522
            if (a == 0) return (true, 0);
            uint256 c = a * b;
            if (c / a != b) return (false, 0);
            return (true, c);
        }
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns the division of two unsigned integers, with a division by zero flag.
     */
    function tryDiv(uint256 a, uint256 b) internal pure returns (bool, uint256) {
        unchecked {
            if (b == 0) return (false, 0);
            return (true, a / b);
        }
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns the remainder of dividing two unsigned integers, with a division by zero flag.
     */
    function tryMod(uint256 a, uint256 b) internal pure returns (bool, uint256) {
        unchecked {
            if (b == 0) return (false, 0);
            return (true, a % b);
        }
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns the largest of two numbers.
     */
    function max(uint256 a, uint256 b) internal pure returns (uint256) {
        return a > b ? a : b;
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns the smallest of two numbers.
     */
    function min(uint256 a, uint256 b) internal pure returns (uint256) {
        return a < b ? a : b;
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns the average of two numbers. The result is rounded towards
     * zero.
     */
    function average(uint256 a, uint256 b) internal pure returns (uint256) {
        // (a + b) / 2 can overflow.
        return (a & b) + (a ^ b) / 2;
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns the ceiling of the division of two numbers.
     *
     * This differs from standard division with `/` in that it rounds towards infinity instead
     * of rounding towards zero.
     */
    function ceilDiv(uint256 a, uint256 b) internal pure returns (uint256) {
        if (b == 0) {
            // Guarantee the same behavior as in a regular Solidity division.
            return a / b;
        }

        // (a + b - 1) / b can overflow on addition, so we distribute.
        return a == 0 ? 0 : (a - 1) / b + 1;
    }

    /**
     * @notice Calculates floor(x * y / denominator) with full precision. Throws if result overflows a uint256 or
     * denominator == 0.
     * @dev Original credit to Remco Bloemen under MIT license (https://xn--2-umb.com/21/muldiv) with further edits by
     * Uniswap Labs also under MIT license.
     */
    function mulDiv(uint256 x, uint256 y, uint256 denominator) internal pure returns (uint256 result) {
        unchecked {
            // 512-bit multiply [prod1 prod0] = x * y. Compute the product mod 2^256 and mod 2^256 - 1, then use
            // use the Chinese Remainder Theorem to reconstruct the 512 bit result. The result is stored in two 256
            // variables such that product = prod1 * 2^256 + prod0.
            uint256 prod0 = x * y; // Least significant 256 bits of the product
            uint256 prod1; // Most significant 256 bits of the product
            assembly {
                let mm := mulmod(x, y, not(0))
                prod1 := sub(sub(mm, prod0), lt(mm, prod0))
            }

            // Handle non-overflow cases, 256 by 256 division.
            if (prod1 == 0) {
                // Solidity will revert if denominator == 0, unlike the div opcode on its own.
                // The surrounding unchecked block does not change this fact.
                // See https://docs.soliditylang.org/en/latest/control-structures.html#checked-or-unchecked-arithmetic.
                return prod0 / denominator;
            }

            // Make sure the result is less than 2^256. Also prevents denominator == 0.
            if (denominator <= prod1) {
                revert MathOverflowedMulDiv();
            }

            ///////////////////////////////////////////////
            // 512 by 256 division.
            ///////////////////////////////////////////////

            // Make division exact by subtracting the remainder from [prod1 prod0].
            uint256 remainder;
            assembly {
                // Compute remainder using mulmod.
                remainder := mulmod(x, y, denominator)

                // Subtract 256 bit number from 512 bit number.
                prod1 := sub(prod1, gt(remainder, prod0))
                prod0 := sub(prod0, remainder)
            }

            // Factor powers of two out of denominator and compute largest power of two divisor of denominator.
            // Always >= 1. See https://cs.stackexchange.com/q/138556/92363.

            uint256 twos = denominator & (0 - denominator);
            assembly {
                // Divide denominator by twos.
                denominator := div(denominator, twos)

                // Divide [prod1 prod0] by twos.
                prod0 := div(prod0, twos)

                // Flip twos such that it is 2^256 / twos. If twos is zero, then it becomes one.
                twos := add(div(sub(0, twos), twos), 1)
            }

            // Shift in bits from prod1 into prod0.
            prod0 |= prod1 * twos;

            // Invert denominator mod 2^256. Now that denominator is an odd number, it has an inverse modulo 2^256 such
            // that denominator * inv = 1 mod 2^256. Compute the inverse by starting with a seed that is correct for
            // four bits. That is, denominator * inv = 1 mod 2^4.
            uint256 inverse = (3 * denominator) ^ 2;

            // Use the Newton-Raphson iteration to improve the precision. Thanks to Hensel's lifting lemma, this also
            // works in modular arithmetic, doubling the correct bits in each step.
            inverse *= 2 - denominator * inverse; // inverse mod 2^8
            inverse *= 2 - denominator * inverse; // inverse mod 2^16
            inverse *= 2 - denominator * inverse; // inverse mod 2^32
            inverse *= 2 - denominator * inverse; // inverse mod 2^64
            inverse *= 2 - denominator * inverse; // inverse mod 2^128
            inverse *= 2 - denominator * inverse; // inverse mod 2^256

            // Because the division is now exact we can divide by multiplying with the modular inverse of denominator.
            // This will give us the correct result modulo 2^256. Since the preconditions guarantee that the outcome is
            // less than 2^256, this is the final result. We don't need to compute the high bits of the result and prod1
            // is no longer required.
            result = prod0 * inverse;
            return result;
        }
    }

    /**
     * @notice Calculates x * y / denominator with full precision, following the selected rounding direction.
     */
    function mulDiv(uint256 x, uint256 y, uint256 denominator, Rounding rounding) internal pure returns (uint256) {
        uint256 result = mulDiv(x, y, denominator);
        if (unsignedRoundsUp(rounding) && mulmod(x, y, denominator) > 0) {
            result += 1;
        }
        return result;
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns the square root of a number. If the number is not a perfect square, the value is rounded
     * towards zero.
     *
     * Inspired by Henry S. Warren, Jr.'s "Hacker's Delight" (Chapter 11).
     */
    function sqrt(uint256 a) internal pure returns (uint256) {
        if (a == 0) {
            return 0;
        }

        // For our first guess, we get the biggest power of 2 which is smaller than the square root of the target.
        //
        // We know that the "msb" (most significant bit) of our target number `a` is a power of 2 such that we have
        // `msb(a) <= a < 2*msb(a)`. This value can be written `msb(a)=2**k` with `k=log2(a)`.
        //
        // This can be rewritten `2**log2(a) <= a < 2**(log2(a) + 1)`
        // → `sqrt(2**k) <= sqrt(a) < sqrt(2**(k+1))`
        // → `2**(k/2) <= sqrt(a) < 2**((k+1)/2) <= 2**(k/2 + 1)`
        //
        // Consequently, `2**(log2(a) / 2)` is a good first approximation of `sqrt(a)` with at least 1 correct bit.
        uint256 result = 1 << (log2(a) >> 1);

        // At this point `result` is an estimation with one bit of precision. We know the true value is a uint128,
        // since it is the square root of a uint256. Newton's method converges quadratically (precision doubles at
        // every iteration). We thus need at most 7 iteration to turn our partial result with one bit of precision
        // into the expected uint128 result.
        unchecked {
            result = (result + a / result) >> 1;
            result = (result + a / result) >> 1;
            result = (result + a / result) >> 1;
            result = (result + a / result) >> 1;
            result = (result + a / result) >> 1;
            result = (result + a / result) >> 1;
            result = (result + a / result) >> 1;
            return min(result, a / result);
        }
    }

    /**
     * @notice Calculates sqrt(a), following the selected rounding direction.
     */
    function sqrt(uint256 a, Rounding rounding) internal pure returns (uint256) {
        unchecked {
            uint256 result = sqrt(a);
            return result + (unsignedRoundsUp(rounding) && result * result < a ? 1 : 0);
        }
    }

    /**
     * @dev Return the log in base 2 of a positive value rounded towards zero.
     * Returns 0 if given 0.
     */
    function log2(uint256 value) internal pure returns (uint256) {
        uint256 result = 0;
        unchecked {
            if (value >> 128 > 0) {
                value >>= 128;
                result += 128;
            }
            if (value >> 64 > 0) {
                value >>= 64;
                result += 64;
            }
            if (value >> 32 > 0) {
                value >>= 32;
                result += 32;
            }
            if (value >> 16 > 0) {
                value >>= 16;
                result += 16;
            }
            if (value >> 8 > 0) {
                value >>= 8;
                result += 8;
            }
            if (value >> 4 > 0) {
                value >>= 4;
                result += 4;
            }
            if (value >> 2 > 0) {
                value >>= 2;
                result += 2;
            }
            if (value >> 1 > 0) {
                result += 1;
            }
        }
        return result;
    }

    /**
     * @dev Return the log in base 2, following the selected rounding direction, of a positive value.
     * Returns 0 if given 0.
     */
    function log2(uint256 value, Rounding rounding) internal pure returns (uint256) {
        unchecked {
            uint256 result = log2(value);
            return result + (unsignedRoundsUp(rounding) && 1 << result < value ? 1 : 0);
        }
    }

    /**
     * @dev Return the log in base 10 of a positive value rounded towards zero.
     * Returns 0 if given 0.
     */
    function log10(uint256 value) internal pure returns (uint256) {
        uint256 result = 0;
        unchecked {
            if (value >= 10 ** 64) {
                value /= 10 ** 64;
                result += 64;
            }
            if (value >= 10 ** 32) {
                value /= 10 ** 32;
                result += 32;
            }
            if (value >= 10 ** 16) {
                value /= 10 ** 16;
                result += 16;
            }
            if (value >= 10 ** 8) {
                value /= 10 ** 8;
                result += 8;
            }
            if (value >= 10 ** 4) {
                value /= 10 ** 4;
                result += 4;
            }
            if (value >= 10 ** 2) {
                value /= 10 ** 2;
                result += 2;
            }
            if (value >= 10 ** 1) {
                result += 1;
            }
        }
        return result;
    }

    /**
     * @dev Return the log in base 10, following the selected rounding direction, of a positive value.
     * Returns 0 if given 0.
     */
    function log10(uint256 value, Rounding rounding) internal pure returns (uint256) {
        unchecked {
            uint256 result = log10(value);
            return result + (unsignedRoundsUp(rounding) && 10 ** result < value ? 1 : 0);
        }
    }

    /**
     * @dev Return the log in base 256 of a positive value rounded towards zero.
     * Returns 0 if given 0.
     *
     * Adding one to the result gives the number of pairs of hex symbols needed to represent `value` as a hex string.
     */
    function log256(uint256 value) internal pure returns (uint256) {
        uint256 result = 0;
        unchecked {
            if (value >> 128 > 0) {
                value >>= 128;
                result += 16;
            }
            if (value >> 64 > 0) {
                value >>= 64;
                result += 8;
            }
            if (value >> 32 > 0) {
                value >>= 32;
                result += 4;
            }
            if (value >> 16 > 0) {
                value >>= 16;
                result += 2;
            }
            if (value >> 8 > 0) {
                result += 1;
            }
        }
        return result;
    }

    /**
     * @dev Return the log in base 256, following the selected rounding direction, of a positive value.
     * Returns 0 if given 0.
     */
    function log256(uint256 value, Rounding rounding) internal pure returns (uint256) {
        unchecked {
            uint256 result = log256(value);
            return result + (unsignedRoundsUp(rounding) && 1 << (result << 3) < value ? 1 : 0);
        }
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns whether a provided rounding mode is considered rounding up for unsigned integers.
     */
    function unsignedRoundsUp(Rounding rounding) internal pure returns (bool) {
        return uint8(rounding) % 2 == 1;
    }
}

File 7 of 9 : Initializable.sol
// SPDX-License-Identifier: MIT
// OpenZeppelin Contracts (last updated v5.0.0) (proxy/utils/Initializable.sol)

pragma solidity ^0.8.15;

/**
 * @dev This is a base contract to aid in writing upgradeable contracts, or any kind of contract that will be deployed
 * behind a proxy. Since proxied contracts do not make use of a constructor, it's common to move constructor logic to an
 * external initializer function, usually called `initialize`. It then becomes necessary to protect this initializer
 * function so it can only be called once. The {initializer} modifier provided by this contract will have this effect.
 *
 * The initialization functions use a version number. Once a version number is used, it is consumed and cannot be
 * reused. This mechanism prevents re-execution of each "step" but allows the creation of new initialization steps in
 * case an upgrade adds a module that needs to be initialized.
 *
 * For example:
 *
 * [.hljs-theme-light.nopadding]
 * ```solidity
 * contract MyToken is ERC20Upgradeable {
 *     function initialize() initializer public {
 *         __ERC20_init("MyToken", "MTK");
 *     }
 * }
 *
 * contract MyTokenV2 is MyToken, ERC20PermitUpgradeable {
 *     function initializeV2() reinitializer(2) public {
 *         __ERC20Permit_init("MyToken");
 *     }
 * }
 * ```
 *
 * TIP: To avoid leaving the proxy in an uninitialized state, the initializer function should be called as early as
 * possible by providing the encoded function call as the `_data` argument to {ERC1967Proxy-constructor}.
 *
 * CAUTION: When used with inheritance, manual care must be taken to not invoke a parent initializer twice, or to ensure
 * that all initializers are idempotent. This is not verified automatically as constructors are by Solidity.
 *
 * [CAUTION]
 * ====
 * Avoid leaving a contract uninitialized.
 *
 * An uninitialized contract can be taken over by an attacker. This applies to both a proxy and its implementation
 * contract, which may impact the proxy. To prevent the implementation contract from being used, you should invoke
 * the {_disableInitializers} function in the constructor to automatically lock it when it is deployed:
 *
 * [.hljs-theme-light.nopadding]
 * ```
 * /// @custom:oz-upgrades-unsafe-allow constructor
 * constructor() {
 *     _disableInitializers();
 * }
 * ```
 * ====
 */
abstract contract Initializable {
    /**
     * @dev Storage of the initializable contract.
     *
     * It's implemented on a custom ERC-7201 namespace to reduce the risk of storage collisions
     * when using with upgradeable contracts.
     *
     * @custom:storage-location erc7201:openzeppelin.storage.Initializable
     */
    struct InitializableStorage {
        /**
         * @dev Indicates that the contract has been initialized.
         */
        uint64 _initialized;
        /**
         * @dev Indicates that the contract is in the process of being initialized.
         */
        bool _initializing;
    }

    // keccak256(abi.encode(uint256(keccak256("openzeppelin.storage.Initializable")) - 1)) & ~bytes32(uint256(0xff))
    bytes32 private constant INITIALIZABLE_STORAGE = 0xf0c57e16840df040f15088dc2f81fe391c3923bec73e23a9662efc9c229c6a00;

    /**
     * @dev The contract is already initialized.
     */
    error InvalidInitialization();

    /**
     * @dev The contract is not initializing.
     */
    error NotInitializing();

    /**
     * @dev Triggered when the contract has been initialized or reinitialized.
     */
    event Initialized(uint64 version);

    /**
     * @dev A modifier that defines a protected initializer function that can be invoked at most once. In its scope,
     * `onlyInitializing` functions can be used to initialize parent contracts.
     *
     * Similar to `reinitializer(1)`, except that in the context of a constructor an `initializer` may be invoked any
     * number of times. This behavior in the constructor can be useful during testing and is not expected to be used in
     * production.
     *
     * Emits an {Initialized} event.
     */
    modifier initializer() {
        // solhint-disable-next-line var-name-mixedcase
        InitializableStorage storage $ = _getInitializableStorage();

        // Cache values to avoid duplicated sloads
        bool isTopLevelCall = !$._initializing;
        uint64 initialized = $._initialized;

        // Allowed calls:
        // - initialSetup: the contract is not in the initializing state and no previous version was
        //                 initialized
        // - construction: the contract is initialized at version 1 (no reininitialization) and the
        //                 current contract is just being deployed
        bool initialSetup = initialized == 0 && isTopLevelCall;
        bool construction = initialized == 1 && address(this).code.length == 0;

        if (!initialSetup && !construction) {
            revert InvalidInitialization();
        }
        $._initialized = 1;
        if (isTopLevelCall) {
            $._initializing = true;
        }
        _;
        if (isTopLevelCall) {
            $._initializing = false;
            emit Initialized(1);
        }
    }

    /**
     * @dev A modifier that defines a protected reinitializer function that can be invoked at most once, and only if the
     * contract hasn't been initialized to a greater version before. In its scope, `onlyInitializing` functions can be
     * used to initialize parent contracts.
     *
     * A reinitializer may be used after the original initialization step. This is essential to configure modules that
     * are added through upgrades and that require initialization.
     *
     * When `version` is 1, this modifier is similar to `initializer`, except that functions marked with `reinitializer`
     * cannot be nested. If one is invoked in the context of another, execution will revert.
     *
     * Note that versions can jump in increments greater than 1; this implies that if multiple reinitializers coexist in
     * a contract, executing them in the right order is up to the developer or operator.
     *
     * WARNING: Setting the version to 2**64 - 1 will prevent any future reinitialization.
     *
     * Emits an {Initialized} event.
     */
    modifier reinitializer(uint64 version) {
        // solhint-disable-next-line var-name-mixedcase
        InitializableStorage storage $ = _getInitializableStorage();

        if ($._initializing || $._initialized >= version) {
            revert InvalidInitialization();
        }
        $._initialized = version;
        $._initializing = true;
        _;
        $._initializing = false;
        emit Initialized(version);
    }

    /**
     * @dev Modifier to protect an initialization function so that it can only be invoked by functions with the
     * {initializer} and {reinitializer} modifiers, directly or indirectly.
     */
    modifier onlyInitializing() {
        _checkInitializing();
        _;
    }

    /**
     * @dev Reverts if the contract is not in an initializing state. See {onlyInitializing}.
     */
    function _checkInitializing() internal view virtual {
        if (!_isInitializing()) {
            revert NotInitializing();
        }
    }

    /**
     * @dev Locks the contract, preventing any future reinitialization. This cannot be part of an initializer call.
     * Calling this in the constructor of a contract will prevent that contract from being initialized or reinitialized
     * to any version. It is recommended to use this to lock implementation contracts that are designed to be called
     * through proxies.
     *
     * Emits an {Initialized} event the first time it is successfully executed.
     */
    function _disableInitializers() internal virtual {
        // solhint-disable-next-line var-name-mixedcase
        InitializableStorage storage $ = _getInitializableStorage();

        if ($._initializing) {
            revert InvalidInitialization();
        }
        if ($._initialized != type(uint64).max) {
            $._initialized = type(uint64).max;
            emit Initialized(type(uint64).max);
        }
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns the highest version that has been initialized. See {reinitializer}.
     */
    function _getInitializedVersion() internal view returns (uint64) {
        return _getInitializableStorage()._initialized;
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns `true` if the contract is currently initializing. See {onlyInitializing}.
     */
    function _isInitializing() internal view returns (bool) {
        return _getInitializableStorage()._initializing;
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns a pointer to the storage namespace.
     */
    // solhint-disable-next-line var-name-mixedcase
    function _getInitializableStorage() private pure returns (InitializableStorage storage $) {
        assembly {
            $.slot := INITIALIZABLE_STORAGE
        }
    }
}

File 8 of 9 : FixedPointMathLib.sol
// SPDX-License-Identifier: MIT
pragma solidity >=0.8.0;

/// @notice Arithmetic library with operations for fixed-point numbers.
/// @author Solmate (https://github.com/Rari-Capital/solmate/blob/main/src/utils/FixedPointMathLib.sol)
library FixedPointMathLib {
    /*//////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
                    SIMPLIFIED FIXED POINT OPERATIONS
    //////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////*/

    uint256 internal constant WAD = 1e18; // The scalar of ETH and most ERC20s.

    function mulWadDown(uint256 x, uint256 y) internal pure returns (uint256) {
        return mulDivDown(x, y, WAD); // Equivalent to (x * y) / WAD rounded down.
    }

    function mulWadUp(uint256 x, uint256 y) internal pure returns (uint256) {
        return mulDivUp(x, y, WAD); // Equivalent to (x * y) / WAD rounded up.
    }

    function divWadDown(uint256 x, uint256 y) internal pure returns (uint256) {
        return mulDivDown(x, WAD, y); // Equivalent to (x * WAD) / y rounded down.
    }

    function divWadUp(uint256 x, uint256 y) internal pure returns (uint256) {
        return mulDivUp(x, WAD, y); // Equivalent to (x * WAD) / y rounded up.
    }

    function powWad(int256 x, int256 y) internal pure returns (int256) {
        // Equivalent to x to the power of y because x ** y = (e ** ln(x)) ** y = e ** (ln(x) * y)
        return expWad((lnWad(x) * y) / int256(WAD)); // Using ln(x) means x must be greater than 0.
    }

    function expWad(int256 x) internal pure returns (int256 r) {
        unchecked {
            // When the result is < 0.5 we return zero. This happens when
            // x <= floor(log(0.5e18) * 1e18) ~ -42e18
            if (x <= -42139678854452767551) return 0;

            // When the result is > (2**255 - 1) / 1e18 we can not represent it as an
            // int. This happens when x >= floor(log((2**255 - 1) / 1e18) * 1e18) ~ 135.
            if (x >= 135305999368893231589) revert("EXP_OVERFLOW");

            // x is now in the range (-42, 136) * 1e18. Convert to (-42, 136) * 2**96
            // for more intermediate precision and a binary basis. This base conversion
            // is a multiplication by 1e18 / 2**96 = 5**18 / 2**78.
            x = (x << 78) / 5**18;

            // Reduce range of x to (-½ ln 2, ½ ln 2) * 2**96 by factoring out powers
            // of two such that exp(x) = exp(x') * 2**k, where k is an integer.
            // Solving this gives k = round(x / log(2)) and x' = x - k * log(2).
            int256 k = ((x << 96) / 54916777467707473351141471128 + 2**95) >> 96;
            x = x - k * 54916777467707473351141471128;

            // k is in the range [-61, 195].

            // Evaluate using a (6, 7)-term rational approximation.
            // p is made monic, we'll multiply by a scale factor later.
            int256 y = x + 1346386616545796478920950773328;
            y = ((y * x) >> 96) + 57155421227552351082224309758442;
            int256 p = y + x - 94201549194550492254356042504812;
            p = ((p * y) >> 96) + 28719021644029726153956944680412240;
            p = p * x + (4385272521454847904659076985693276 << 96);

            // We leave p in 2**192 basis so we don't need to scale it back up for the division.
            int256 q = x - 2855989394907223263936484059900;
            q = ((q * x) >> 96) + 50020603652535783019961831881945;
            q = ((q * x) >> 96) - 533845033583426703283633433725380;
            q = ((q * x) >> 96) + 3604857256930695427073651918091429;
            q = ((q * x) >> 96) - 14423608567350463180887372962807573;
            q = ((q * x) >> 96) + 26449188498355588339934803723976023;

            assembly {
                // Div in assembly because solidity adds a zero check despite the unchecked.
                // The q polynomial won't have zeros in the domain as all its roots are complex.
                // No scaling is necessary because p is already 2**96 too large.
                r := sdiv(p, q)
            }

            // r should be in the range (0.09, 0.25) * 2**96.

            // We now need to multiply r by:
            // * the scale factor s = ~6.031367120.
            // * the 2**k factor from the range reduction.
            // * the 1e18 / 2**96 factor for base conversion.
            // We do this all at once, with an intermediate result in 2**213
            // basis, so the final right shift is always by a positive amount.
            r = int256((uint256(r) * 3822833074963236453042738258902158003155416615667) >> uint256(195 - k));
        }
    }

    function lnWad(int256 x) internal pure returns (int256 r) {
        unchecked {
            require(x > 0, "UNDEFINED");

            // We want to convert x from 10**18 fixed point to 2**96 fixed point.
            // We do this by multiplying by 2**96 / 10**18. But since
            // ln(x * C) = ln(x) + ln(C), we can simply do nothing here
            // and add ln(2**96 / 10**18) at the end.

            // Reduce range of x to (1, 2) * 2**96
            // ln(2^k * x) = k * ln(2) + ln(x)
            int256 k = int256(log2(uint256(x))) - 96;
            x <<= uint256(159 - k);
            x = int256(uint256(x) >> 159);

            // Evaluate using a (8, 8)-term rational approximation.
            // p is made monic, we will multiply by a scale factor later.
            int256 p = x + 3273285459638523848632254066296;
            p = ((p * x) >> 96) + 24828157081833163892658089445524;
            p = ((p * x) >> 96) + 43456485725739037958740375743393;
            p = ((p * x) >> 96) - 11111509109440967052023855526967;
            p = ((p * x) >> 96) - 45023709667254063763336534515857;
            p = ((p * x) >> 96) - 14706773417378608786704636184526;
            p = p * x - (795164235651350426258249787498 << 96);

            // We leave p in 2**192 basis so we don't need to scale it back up for the division.
            // q is monic by convention.
            int256 q = x + 5573035233440673466300451813936;
            q = ((q * x) >> 96) + 71694874799317883764090561454958;
            q = ((q * x) >> 96) + 283447036172924575727196451306956;
            q = ((q * x) >> 96) + 401686690394027663651624208769553;
            q = ((q * x) >> 96) + 204048457590392012362485061816622;
            q = ((q * x) >> 96) + 31853899698501571402653359427138;
            q = ((q * x) >> 96) + 909429971244387300277376558375;
            assembly {
                // Div in assembly because solidity adds a zero check despite the unchecked.
                // The q polynomial is known not to have zeros in the domain.
                // No scaling required because p is already 2**96 too large.
                r := sdiv(p, q)
            }

            // r is in the range (0, 0.125) * 2**96

            // Finalization, we need to:
            // * multiply by the scale factor s = 5.549…
            // * add ln(2**96 / 10**18)
            // * add k * ln(2)
            // * multiply by 10**18 / 2**96 = 5**18 >> 78

            // mul s * 5e18 * 2**96, base is now 5**18 * 2**192
            r *= 1677202110996718588342820967067443963516166;
            // add ln(2) * k * 5e18 * 2**192
            r += 16597577552685614221487285958193947469193820559219878177908093499208371 * k;
            // add ln(2**96 / 10**18) * 5e18 * 2**192
            r += 600920179829731861736702779321621459595472258049074101567377883020018308;
            // base conversion: mul 2**18 / 2**192
            r >>= 174;
        }
    }

    /*//////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
                    LOW LEVEL FIXED POINT OPERATIONS
    //////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////*/

    function mulDivDown(
        uint256 x,
        uint256 y,
        uint256 denominator
    ) internal pure returns (uint256 z) {
        assembly {
            // Store x * y in z for now.
            z := mul(x, y)

            // Equivalent to require(denominator != 0 && (x == 0 || (x * y) / x == y))
            if iszero(and(iszero(iszero(denominator)), or(iszero(x), eq(div(z, x), y)))) {
                revert(0, 0)
            }

            // Divide z by the denominator.
            z := div(z, denominator)
        }
    }

    function mulDivUp(
        uint256 x,
        uint256 y,
        uint256 denominator
    ) internal pure returns (uint256 z) {
        assembly {
            // Store x * y in z for now.
            z := mul(x, y)

            // Equivalent to require(denominator != 0 && (x == 0 || (x * y) / x == y))
            if iszero(and(iszero(iszero(denominator)), or(iszero(x), eq(div(z, x), y)))) {
                revert(0, 0)
            }

            // First, divide z - 1 by the denominator and add 1.
            // We allow z - 1 to underflow if z is 0, because we multiply the
            // end result by 0 if z is zero, ensuring we return 0 if z is zero.
            z := mul(iszero(iszero(z)), add(div(sub(z, 1), denominator), 1))
        }
    }

    function rpow(
        uint256 x,
        uint256 n,
        uint256 scalar
    ) internal pure returns (uint256 z) {
        assembly {
            switch x
            case 0 {
                switch n
                case 0 {
                    // 0 ** 0 = 1
                    z := scalar
                }
                default {
                    // 0 ** n = 0
                    z := 0
                }
            }
            default {
                switch mod(n, 2)
                case 0 {
                    // If n is even, store scalar in z for now.
                    z := scalar
                }
                default {
                    // If n is odd, store x in z for now.
                    z := x
                }

                // Shifting right by 1 is like dividing by 2.
                let half := shr(1, scalar)

                for {
                    // Shift n right by 1 before looping to halve it.
                    n := shr(1, n)
                } n {
                    // Shift n right by 1 each iteration to halve it.
                    n := shr(1, n)
                } {
                    // Revert immediately if x ** 2 would overflow.
                    // Equivalent to iszero(eq(div(xx, x), x)) here.
                    if shr(128, x) {
                        revert(0, 0)
                    }

                    // Store x squared.
                    let xx := mul(x, x)

                    // Round to the nearest number.
                    let xxRound := add(xx, half)

                    // Revert if xx + half overflowed.
                    if lt(xxRound, xx) {
                        revert(0, 0)
                    }

                    // Set x to scaled xxRound.
                    x := div(xxRound, scalar)

                    // If n is even:
                    if mod(n, 2) {
                        // Compute z * x.
                        let zx := mul(z, x)

                        // If z * x overflowed:
                        if iszero(eq(div(zx, x), z)) {
                            // Revert if x is non-zero.
                            if iszero(iszero(x)) {
                                revert(0, 0)
                            }
                        }

                        // Round to the nearest number.
                        let zxRound := add(zx, half)

                        // Revert if zx + half overflowed.
                        if lt(zxRound, zx) {
                            revert(0, 0)
                        }

                        // Return properly scaled zxRound.
                        z := div(zxRound, scalar)
                    }
                }
            }
        }
    }

    /*//////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
                        GENERAL NUMBER UTILITIES
    //////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////*/

    function sqrt(uint256 x) internal pure returns (uint256 z) {
        assembly {
            let y := x // We start y at x, which will help us make our initial estimate.

            z := 181 // The "correct" value is 1, but this saves a multiplication later.

            // This segment is to get a reasonable initial estimate for the Babylonian method. With a bad
            // start, the correct # of bits increases ~linearly each iteration instead of ~quadratically.

            // We check y >= 2^(k + 8) but shift right by k bits
            // each branch to ensure that if x >= 256, then y >= 256.
            if iszero(lt(y, 0x10000000000000000000000000000000000)) {
                y := shr(128, y)
                z := shl(64, z)
            }
            if iszero(lt(y, 0x1000000000000000000)) {
                y := shr(64, y)
                z := shl(32, z)
            }
            if iszero(lt(y, 0x10000000000)) {
                y := shr(32, y)
                z := shl(16, z)
            }
            if iszero(lt(y, 0x1000000)) {
                y := shr(16, y)
                z := shl(8, z)
            }

            // Goal was to get z*z*y within a small factor of x. More iterations could
            // get y in a tighter range. Currently, we will have y in [256, 256*2^16).
            // We ensured y >= 256 so that the relative difference between y and y+1 is small.
            // That's not possible if x < 256 but we can just verify those cases exhaustively.

            // Now, z*z*y <= x < z*z*(y+1), and y <= 2^(16+8), and either y >= 256, or x < 256.
            // Correctness can be checked exhaustively for x < 256, so we assume y >= 256.
            // Then z*sqrt(y) is within sqrt(257)/sqrt(256) of sqrt(x), or about 20bps.

            // For s in the range [1/256, 256], the estimate f(s) = (181/1024) * (s+1) is in the range
            // (1/2.84 * sqrt(s), 2.84 * sqrt(s)), with largest error when s = 1 and when s = 256 or 1/256.

            // Since y is in [256, 256*2^16), let a = y/65536, so that a is in [1/256, 256). Then we can estimate
            // sqrt(y) using sqrt(65536) * 181/1024 * (a + 1) = 181/4 * (y + 65536)/65536 = 181 * (y + 65536)/2^18.

            // There is no overflow risk here since y < 2^136 after the first branch above.
            z := shr(18, mul(z, add(y, 65536))) // A mul() is saved from starting z at 181.

            // Given the worst case multiplicative error of 2.84 above, 7 iterations should be enough.
            z := shr(1, add(z, div(x, z)))
            z := shr(1, add(z, div(x, z)))
            z := shr(1, add(z, div(x, z)))
            z := shr(1, add(z, div(x, z)))
            z := shr(1, add(z, div(x, z)))
            z := shr(1, add(z, div(x, z)))
            z := shr(1, add(z, div(x, z)))

            // If x+1 is a perfect square, the Babylonian method cycles between
            // floor(sqrt(x)) and ceil(sqrt(x)). This statement ensures we return floor.
            // See: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Integer_square_root#Using_only_integer_division
            // Since the ceil is rare, we save gas on the assignment and repeat division in the rare case.
            // If you don't care whether the floor or ceil square root is returned, you can remove this statement.
            z := sub(z, lt(div(x, z), z))
        }
    }

    function log2(uint256 x) internal pure returns (uint256 r) {
        require(x > 0, "UNDEFINED");

        assembly {
            r := shl(7, lt(0xffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff, x))
            r := or(r, shl(6, lt(0xffffffffffffffff, shr(r, x))))
            r := or(r, shl(5, lt(0xffffffff, shr(r, x))))
            r := or(r, shl(4, lt(0xffff, shr(r, x))))
            r := or(r, shl(3, lt(0xff, shr(r, x))))
            r := or(r, shl(2, lt(0xf, shr(r, x))))
            r := or(r, shl(1, lt(0x3, shr(r, x))))
            r := or(r, lt(0x1, shr(r, x)))
        }
    }

    function unsafeMod(uint256 x, uint256 y) internal pure returns (uint256 z) {
        assembly {
            // z will equal 0 if y is 0, unlike in Solidity where it will revert.
            z := mod(x, y)
        }
    }

    function unsafeDiv(uint256 x, uint256 y) internal pure returns (uint256 z) {
        assembly {
            // z will equal 0 if y is 0, unlike in Solidity where it will revert.
            z := div(x, y)
        }
    }

    /// @dev Will return 0 instead of reverting if y is zero.
    function unsafeDivUp(uint256 x, uint256 y) internal pure returns (uint256 z) {
        assembly {
            // Add 1 to x * y if x % y > 0.
            z := add(gt(mod(x, y), 0), div(x, y))
        }
    }
}

File 9 of 9 : SignedMath.sol
// SPDX-License-Identifier: MIT
// OpenZeppelin Contracts (last updated v5.0.0) (utils/math/SignedMath.sol)

pragma solidity ^0.8.15;

/**
 * @dev Standard signed math utilities missing in the Solidity language.
 */
library SignedMath {
    /**
     * @dev Returns the largest of two signed numbers.
     */
    function max(int256 a, int256 b) internal pure returns (int256) {
        return a > b ? a : b;
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns the smallest of two signed numbers.
     */
    function min(int256 a, int256 b) internal pure returns (int256) {
        return a < b ? a : b;
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns the average of two signed numbers without overflow.
     * The result is rounded towards zero.
     */
    function average(int256 a, int256 b) internal pure returns (int256) {
        // Formula from the book "Hacker's Delight"
        int256 x = (a & b) + ((a ^ b) >> 1);
        return x + (int256(uint256(x) >> 255) & (a ^ b));
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns the absolute unsigned value of a signed value.
     */
    function abs(int256 n) internal pure returns (uint256) {
        unchecked {
            // must be unchecked in order to support `n = type(int256).min`
            return uint256(n >= 0 ? n : -n);
        }
    }
}

Settings
{
  "optimizer": {
    "enabled": true,
    "runs": 999999
  },
  "outputSelection": {
    "*": {
      "": [
        "ast"
      ],
      "*": [
        "abi",
        "metadata",
        "devdoc",
        "userdoc",
        "storageLayout",
        "evm.legacyAssembly",
        "evm.bytecode",
        "evm.deployedBytecode",
        "evm.methodIdentifiers",
        "evm.gasEstimates",
        "evm.assembly"
      ]
    }
  },
  "remappings": []
}

Contract ABI

[{"inputs": [{"internalType": "address","name": "_admin","type": "address"}],"stateMutability": "nonpayable","type": "constructor"},{"anonymous": false,"inputs": [{"indexed": false,"internalType": "address","name": "previousAdmin","type": "address"},{"indexed": false,"internalType": "address","name": "newAdmin","type": "address"}],"name": "AdminChanged","type": "event"},{"anonymous": false,"inputs": [{"indexed": true,"internalType": "address","name": "implementation","type": "address"}],"name": "Upgraded","type": "event"},{"stateMutability": "payable","type": "fallback"},{"inputs": [],"name": "admin","outputs": [{"internalType": "address","name": "","type": "address"}],"stateMutability": "nonpayable","type": "function"},{"inputs": [{"internalType": "address","name": "_admin","type": "address"}],"name": "changeAdmin","outputs": [],"stateMutability": "nonpayable","type": "function"},{"inputs": [],"name": "implementation","outputs": [{"internalType": "address","name": "","type": "address"}],"stateMutability": "nonpayable","type": "function"},{"inputs": [{"internalType": "address","name": "_implementation","type": "address"}],"name": "upgradeTo","outputs": [],"stateMutability": "nonpayable","type": "function"},{"inputs": [{"internalType": "address","name": "_implementation","type": "address"},{"internalType": "bytes","name": "_data","type": "bytes"}],"name": "upgradeToAndCall","outputs": [{"internalType": "bytes","name": "","type": "bytes"}],"stateMutability": "payable","type": "function"},{"stateMutability": "payable","type": "receive"}]

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Deployed Bytecode

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